Vol 3 - 2006
Dr. Daniel FLAUT
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to show the main moments of evolution of the underwater archeology, typology of archaeological underwater sites and how the archeological excavations are made.
Keywords: underwater archeology, underwater archaeological sites, underwater excavation.
Tentativa spaniolă de invadare a Angliei şi distrugerea "Invincibilei Armada" - 1588
Dr. Olimpiu Manuel Glodarenco, Ionel Dan Ciocoiu
Abstract: Filip II of Spain had been co-monarch of England until the death of his wife Mary I in 1558. A devout Roman Catholic, he considered Protestant Queen Elizabeth a heretic and illegitimate ruler of England. He had previously supported plots to have her
overthrown in favour of her Catholic cousin Mary, Queen of Scots, but was thwarted when Elizabeth had Mary imprisoned, and finally executed in 1587. In addition, Elizabeth, who sought to advance the cause of Protestantism where possible, had supported the Dutch Revolt against Spain. In retaliation, Philip planned an expedition to invade and conquer England, thereby suppressing support for the United Provinces — that part of the low Countries that had successfully seceded from Spanish rule — and cutting off attacks by the English against Spanish possession in the New World and against the Atlantic treasure fleets. The king was supported by Pope Sixtus V, who treated the invasion as a crusade with the promise of a further subsidy should the Armada make land.
Keywords: England, Armada, Queen Elizabeth, Filip II, fleet, Francis Drake, Medina Sidonia, Spain.
Traficul fluvial-maritim în apele româneşti şi importanţa sa în dezvoltarea eonomică a Ţărilor Române
Drd. Andreea Atanasiu-Croitoru
Abstract: The development of the commerce and of the navigations ways entails the villages and cities apparition and blowing. All this communities were increased by the permanently products changes between the two shores of the Danube and, also with archipelago markets and with the Mediterranean shores. The fluvial and maritime commerce was, of course, encouraged by the local communities. Over the Danube for example, were villages or cities, any way, harbors from each part of the shore. These cities are pairs and develop over the ears commerce one of each other. Also, they has a strategically importance in our history. The maritime harbors from the Black Sea known from the ancient times continued to be very important cities in the international and national commerce. So, the Romanian Countries look for increasing the maritime traffic not only from the bigger and bigger access of the foreign ships in the Romanian harbors, but also, from a very large number of the Romanian ships which are navigated under national flag.
Keywords: commerce, navigation, Danube, Black Sea, Romanian Countries.
Efectele construirii căii ferate Cernavodă – Constanţa asupra navigaţiei dunărene (1859-1860)
Dr. Constantin Ardeleanu
Abstract: The author analysis, on the basis of contemporary unpublished documents, the attitude of the representatives in the European Commission of the Danube regarding the effects of a private competitive project, aimed to bring the Romanian grains into the great commercial route-ways: the Cernavodă – Constanţa railway. Thus, almost simultaneously with the establishment of the European institution, a British company obtained a concession from the Ottoman government, which allowed it to build a railway along the Dobrudscha isthmus. The sense of competition put pressure upon the ECD engineer-in-chief, Charles Augustus Hartley, compelling him to work with much expedition; in the same time, owing to the limited resources available, the railway was used as a pretext for abandoning the more resistant and durable, but also more expensive improvements necessary for rendering navigable the St. George branch of the Danube. Thus, the building of a not very profitable enterprise, the Cernavodă – Constanţa railway, resulted in permanent changes in the geography and economics of the Danube Mouths. Besides abandoning the more advantageous works from St. George in favour of the cheaper and easier adjustments from Sulina, the railway scheme of the British capitalists stimulated the commercial houses from Brăila and Galaţi, which, on the one hand, asked the ECD officials for improvements and modern harbour facilities, and, on the other, realised the necessity to consolidate their enterprises. The first phase in the competition between Rail and River was won by the latter, but the victory was gained by means of a debatable solution, which, on a medium and long run, proved fallacious from a technical and economic point of view.
Keywords: Ottoman government, restriction, the mouths of Danube, navigation, enterprise.
Situaţia geostrategică şi geopolitică la Dunărea de Jos şi Marea Neagră la începutul secolului XX
Drd. Andrei Vochiţu
Abstract: The paper approaches the state of the tumultuous international relations between the Major Powers concerning Lower Danube and Black Sea Straights control in order to seize the keys of Mediterranean commercial lines and finally the road to the reaches of the Far East, old world's chest of wealth, before the breaking of World War I and after.
Keywords: Lower Danube, Black Sea, international relations, economic relations.
Acţiuni de spionaj ale Germaniei la Constanţa şi Tulcea în anul 1915
Dr. Ion Rîşnoveanu
Abstract: From the documents presented above, clearly results the hostile actions coming from the members of diplomatic team of Germany at Bucharest against Romanian State as time as between 1915 and 1916, the Central Powers were convinced by the imminent entering of Romania in the Great War.
Keywords: spying, hostile actions, Germany, documents.
Vecinătatea URSS – factor de insecuritate pentru România interbelică
Dr. Gheorghe Buzatu
Abstract: In decisive year 1939 that marked the evolution of Europe for a period of several decades, it is important to assert that the worst situation was in Eastern Europe, including Romania. One might involve the presence of a decisive element, though considered less credible, and, in fact, the action of a real curse represented by the geopolitical position. Recent discovery have confirmed the importance of Emil Cioran, thus proving the fact according to which the evolution of romanians in point of history had as dominant element the geography. Names such as Mihai Eminescu, Nicolae Iorga and Pamfil Şeicaru, known as the three Titans of our political press, didn't neglect taking into consideration different perspectives and periods the role and the position of the russian factor in point of Romania's point of view as regards international relations. Consequently, it might be said that their assertions have represented significant contributions of a valuable thesaurus, materialized by knowledge that we make appeal to for possible suggestions and solutions regarding concrete cases. It is important to mention that, during last century, local or general conflicts (the two world armed conflicts or the „Cold War") which involved Romania had as main point of discussion the role of the geopolitical element in determinig the evolution of a certain area, the history of various people and, in particular, of Romanians.
Keywords: insecurity, geoplitics, inter-war Romania, political analysis.
Un N.A.T.O. pentru Orientul Mijlociu? Din culisele unui proiect ratat de securitate regională la începutul Războiului Rece
Dr. Emanuel Plopeanu
Abstract: Between 1950 – 1951 un interesting project in the field of regional security was on the discussions agenda of Great Britain and United States diplomacies. This project – the Middle East Commandment – was a British initiative starting from the very
beginning. The goal was to maintain the Western/British presence in this area, through military assistance and defence coordination of all states from Middle East, including Israel. The main reason for which this entity was to be formed was, of course, the Soviet
Union menace. But the Arab states regarded Israel, and not Soviet Union, as their fundamental enemy. So, starting with Egypt, they were encouraged to reject the project, which they regarded as a new method to insure the Western presence in the area.
Keywords: NATO, Middle East, Regional Security.
Repere ale Războiului Rece. Sintagma care a înlocuit cel de-al Treilea Război Mondial
Drd. Cristiana Marin
Abstract: The postwar historiography assesses that the Cold War started from the years of world armed conflict between 1939-1945, thus consolidating the charater neither of peace or war, but better expressed by means of the phrase - armed peace. André Fontaine sustained the fact according to which „the Cold War started at the same time with the appearance of Soviet Russia, being a conflict between capitalism and communism". After the second World War the international relations were marked by the lack of reconciliation and union of Europe and, consequently, with the participation of Germany, Western powers determined the release of armed forces along with the industries of arms. What seemed at the beginning less important arguments and controversies that led to rivalries between Soviet people and Anglo-Saxon allies had proved, in fact, to be a series of ideological, political, strategic contradictions that determined the formation of a real gulf between East and West. The Cold War altered international relations and, in time, the postwar world divided itself into various spheres of influence and dominance. The outcome was the realization of military pacts and economic groups that caused the world scission.
Keywords: Cold War, gulf, armed conflict, alliance.
Viziunea lui Nicolae Ceauşescu despre dezvoltarea industriei româneşti de apărare
Dr. Petre Opriş
Abstract: The Romanian communists after the engrossment of the political power assumed the URSS view in respect of forced industrialization of economy, neglecting for a significant period of time the field of agriculture. The theories of Lenin and Stalin determined the Romanian communists to develop the famous A Sector –made of extractive and processing raw materials industries (in particular coal, ferrous and nonferrous ore) as well as the industry of heavy machinery. Contemporary events emphasize the important role that masses of people have in point deciding the course of international life. The establishment of security in Europe and entire world represents the outcome of masses acts, of the most representative social and political forces. This is the very reason for us to do our best in point of mobilization the governs, political parties, public organizations and opinion to support this lofty world fight for peace.
Keywords: socialism, industrialization, control, progress, socialist countries.
Munca obligatorie a evreilor din România în anii celui de-al doilea război mondial: calvar şi mijloc de supravieţuire
Dr. Florin Stan
Abstract: Without implying that the coercion of the Jewish population to obligatory labour or labour in the benefit of the community would've safeguarded this community under the given circumstances in which the military statute of the Jews was prohibiting their enrolment in the Army and dispatch on the front, the corvees of the physical demands have shaped in a great measure the condition of the Jews in Romania between 1940-1944.
Keywords: Jews, mandatory labour, Romania, World War II.
Gândirea kerigmatică în spiritualitatea bizantină
Dr. Adriana Cîteia
Resumé: La pensée kerigmatique s'est manifestée dans l'Empire Byzantin non seulement dans la domaine réligieux, mais aussi dans celui politique. La pensée kerigmatique est prospective, qui s'oriente constamment vers un avenir difficile à établir, eshatologique. Ayant pour source d'inspiration profonde le Nouveau Testament et la nécessité du missionarisme chez le peuples païens, la pensée kerigmatique s'est mise au service de l'idéal universaliste byzantin. Cet article se propose de présenter les étapes de la formation de ce type de pensée et l'argumentation néotestamentaire.
Keywords: kerigma, eshaton, apokatastasis, teritoriality.
Omul modern între libertatea creştină şi libertatea filosofică
Drd. Corneliu-Dragoş Bălan
Abstract: Liberty is a innate attribute and significant for the human being. This means that liberty is innate gift. However, the human being doesn't have absolute freedom and he isn't given this freedom the moment he is born once and for all, from the moment he was born as human being. That is why we can say that man has just an way to freedom, way that he must develop by his own effort. Christianity maintain that each person, as a human being has the freedom as part of his nature. Also, Christianity was the first that stated that man was created after the image of God. That is why freedom is not a foreign term for Christianity. The authentic liberty of human personality is primary Christian as the ancient world was only aware of the public freedom and not the individual one, it knew just the public freedom. The different philosophic conceptions about freedom, but also the different ways of manifestation of freedom proved its ephemeral characteristic along the time. The church is the place of true freedom development. There's no real freedom or salvation outside the church. The church is in a relation with the whole world. That means that its freedom is in relation with each person and the whole nature's freedom. Perfection one's freedom depends on one's love for God; also, it consists in the union of the human will with the divine will in the name of Jesus Christ.
Keywords: Christian freedom, philosophical freedom, political freedom, grace, human being, church.
Linklater şi etica discursivă. Încercări de reconceptualizare a teoriei sistemice realiste
Drd. Lavinia Asavei
Abstract: The author considers that we all live in an independent world within the framework of which State and communicational borders seem to dissolve and, consequently, the outcome is represented by a cosmopolite motley society in continuous change. The discourse in point of human rights and the presence of the attitude of respect regarding cultural, ethnic, religious and gender differences is known all over the world. The State is deprived by its traditional characteristics and confronts a loss of legitimacy
in front of the people that are part of it. Discursive ethics in the manner in which is conceived by Linklater would be able to help us to interact? Or, the elements that are invoked by critical theory such as individual responsibility in point of victims of other societies and our own society are likely to be followed by an outcome or should they be discredited for their affiliation to utopist Marxism? The above asserted questions might be considered far too complex to have been answered within the text of the present article. There aren't sufficient arguments in order to contradict those persons who sustain that society, either liberal or non liberal, doesn't have any moral responsibility in respect of foreigners and internal difference, that is why the involved society preserves the right to accept or exclude the Other in order to be able to maintain the identity and internal cohesion. Far from imagining a social reformation all that the author hopes is represented by the opening of a dialogue between the two theoretical positions from within International Relations discipline by means of the present article.
Keywords: realist theory, ethics, discourse, utopia, Marxism.
Democraţie Parlamentară sau Prezidenţială?
Dr. Răzvan Victor Pantelimon
Abstract: This article try to analyze the main charactheristics of Parliamentary and Presidential Democarcz in order to respond to the question: Which tipe of democracy is the best? After a few clarifications about the concepts of political regime and form of government, we star to present the two tipes of democracy. The definitions of the two models are created by exclusion because is more easier and clear in that way. After a discussion on the positive and negative part of the two models we discover that none of them can be considerated "the best" because ther are many variables wich can influenced the exit of a democratic sistem.
Keywords: democracy, political regime, parliament, president.
Vot şi egalitate de gen. Evoluţia dobândirii drepturilor politice pentru femei în a doua jumătate a secolului al XIX-lea şi în prima parte a secolului XX
Drd. Mihaela Melinte
Abstract: The last decades have been marked by the intensification of the human rights discourses, closely connected to the efforts of many minorities to assert their own identity. Since the '70s, we are witnessing the re-evaluation of certain traditional concepts of feminist political theories, in order to prove the importance of the affiliation to a specific gender in the construction of political theories. The main goal of this article is to highlight some aspects of women's struggle for the acquirement of civil and political rights, more exactly of the right to vote and to identify some distinct features of the feminist movement in Romania regarding the struggle for electoral rights. Women's struggle for civil and political rights was, by far, one of the most difficult actions in the history of the feminist movements in Europe or America, because the claim for these rights was considered by the majority of the male population a great
immoderacy. In Romania, the idea of attainment of civil and political rights by women became a public matter in the second half of the XIXth century, closely related to the democratization process. If we were to make a historical excursion into the legal status of women, we will find that the emancipation of Romanian women concurs with the general process of women's emancipation in the countries with the oldest democratic tradition.
Keywords: minority, gender, feminism, women's rights, emancipation, right to vote.